L

*Led
(Debug mode only) A global variable holding a (possibly empty) prg body that implements a "Line editor". When non-NIL, it should return a single symbol (string) upon execution.

: (de *Led "(bye)")
# *Led redefined
-> *Led
: $                                    # Exit
+Link
Class for object relations, a subclass of +relation. Expects a list of classes as type of the referred database object (of class +Entity). See also Database.

(rel sup (+Ref +Link) NIL (+CuSu))  # Supplier (class Customer/Supplier)
+List
Prefix class for a list of identical relations. Objects of that class maintain a list of Lisp data of uniform type. See also Database.

(rel pos (+List +Joint) ord (+Pos))  # Positions
(rel nm (+List +Ref +String))        # List of indexed strings
(rel val (+Ref +List +Number))       # Indexed list of numeric values
(last 'lst) -> any
Returns the last element of lst. See also fin and tail.

: (last (1 2 3 4))
-> 4
: (last '((a b) c (d e f)))
-> (d e f)
(later 'var . prg) -> var
Executes prg in a pipe'ed child process. The return value of prg will later be available in var.

: (prog1  # Parallel background calculation of square numbers
   (mapcan '((N) (later (cons) (* N N))) (1 2 3 4))
   (wait NIL (full @)) )
-> (1 4 9 16)
(ld) -> any
(Debug mode only) loads the last file edited with vi or em.

: (vi 'main)
-> T
: (ld)
# main redefined
-> go
(le0 'any) -> num | NIL
Returns num when the argument is a number less or equal zero, otherwise NIL. See also lt0, ge0, gt0, =0 and n0.

: (le0 -2)
-> -2
: (le0 0)
-> 0
: (le0 3)
-> NIL
(leaf 'tree) -> any
Returns the first leaf (i.e. the value of the smallest key) in a database tree. See also tree, minKey, maxKey and step.

: (leaf (tree 'nr '+Item))
-> {3-1}
: (db 'nr '+Item (minKey (tree 'nr '+Item)))
-> {3-1}
(length 'any) -> cnt | T
Returns the "length" of any. For numbers this is the number of decimal digits in the value (plus 1 for negative values), for symbols it is the number of characters in the name, and for lists it is the number of cells (or T for circular lists). See also size and bytes.

: (length "abc")
-> 3
: (length "äbc")
-> 3
: (length 123)
-> 3
: (length (1 (2) 3))
-> 3
: (length (1 2 3 .))
-> T
(less 'any) -> any
(Debug mode only) Returns a reduced form of any, where for each list and its sub-lists only the first two elements, possibly followed by .., are retained.

: (less '(a b c d))
-> (a b ..)
: (less '((a b c) ((d e f) g h) i j))
-> ((a b ..) ((d e ..) g ..) ..)
(let sym 'any . prg) -> any
(let (sym 'any ..) . prg) -> any
Defines local variables. The value of the symbol sym - or the values of the symbols sym in the list of the second form - are saved and the symbols are bound to the evaluated any arguments. prg is executed, then the symbols are restored to their original values. The result of prg is returned. It is an error condition to pass NIL as a sym argument. See also let?, bind, recur, with, for, job and use.

: (setq  X 123  Y 456)
-> 456
: (let X "Hello" (println X))
"Hello"
-> "Hello"
: (let (X "Hello" Y "world") (prinl X " " Y))
Hello world
-> "world"
: X
-> 123
: Y
-> 456
(let? sym 'any . prg) -> any
Conditional local variable binding and execution: If any evalutes to NIL, NIL is returned. Otherwise, the value of the symbol sym is saved and sym is bound to the evaluated any argument. prg is executed, then sym is restored to its original value. The result of prg is returned. It is an error condition to pass NIL as the sym argument. (let? sym 'any ..) is equivalent to (when 'any (let sym @ ..)). See also let, bind, job and use.

: (setq Lst (1 NIL 2 NIL 3))
-> (1 NIL 2 NIL 3)
: (let? A (pop 'Lst) (println 'A A))
A 1
-> 1
: (let? A (pop 'Lst) (println 'A A))
-> NIL
(lieu 'any) -> sym | NIL
Returns the argument any when it is an external symbol and currently manifest in heap space, otherwise NIL. See also ext?.

: (lieu *DB)
-> {1}
(line 'flg ['cnt ..]) -> lst|sym
Reads a line of characters from the current input channel. End of line is recognized as linefeed (hex "0A"), carriage return (hex "0D"), or the combination of both. (Note that a single carriage return may not work on network connections, because the character look-ahead to distinguish from return+linefeed can block the connection.) If flg is NIL, a list of single-character transient symbols is returned. When cnt arguments are given, subsequent characters of the input line are grouped into sublists, to allow parsing of fixed field length records. If flg is non-NIL, strings are returned instead of single-character lists. NIL is returned upon end of file. See also char, read, till and eof.

: (line)
abcdefghijkl
-> ("a" "b" "c" "d" "e" "f" "g" "h" "i" "j" "k" "l")
: (line T)
abcdefghijkl
-> "abcdefghijkl"
: (line NIL 1 2 3)
abcdefghijkl
-> (("a") ("b" "c") ("d" "e" "f") "g" "h" "i" "j" "k" "l")
: (line T 1 2 3)
abcdefghijkl
-> ("a" "bc" "def" "g" "h" "i" "j" "k" "l")
(lines 'any ..) -> cnt
Returns the sum of the number of lines in the files with the names any, or NIL if none was found. See also info.

: (lines "x.l")
-> 11
(link 'any ..) -> any
Links one or several new elements any to the end of the list in the current make environment. This operation is efficient also for long lists, because a pointer to the last element of the list is maintained. link returns the last linked argument. See also yoke, chain and made.

: (make
   (println (link 1))
   (println (link 2 3)) )
1
3
-> (1 2 3)
(lint 'sym) -> lst
(lint 'sym 'cls) -> lst
(lint '(sym . cls)) -> lst
(Debug mode only) Checks the function definition or file contents (in the first form), or the method body of sym (second and third form), for possible pitfalls. Returns an association list of diagnoses, where var indicates improper variables, dup duplicate parameters, def an undefined function, bnd an unbound variable, and use unused variables. See also noLint, lintAll, debug, trace and *Dbg.

: (de foo (R S T R)     # 'T' is a improper parameter, 'R' is duplicated
   (let N 7             # 'N' is unused
      (bar X Y) ) )     # 'bar' is undefined, 'X' and 'Y' are not bound
-> foo
: (lint 'foo)
-> ((var T) (dup R) (def bar) (bnd Y X) (use N))
(lintAll ['sym ..]) -> lst
(Debug mode only) Applies lint to all internal symbols - and optionally to all files sym - and returns a list of diagnoses. See also noLint.

: (more (lintAll "file1.l" "file2.l"))
...
(lisp 'sym ['fun]) -> num
(64-bit version only) Installs under the tag sym a callback function fun, and returns a pointer num suitable to be passed to a C function via 'native'. If fun is NIL, the corresponding entry is freed. Maximally 24 callback functions can be installed that way. 'fun' should be a function of maximally five numbers, and should return a number. "Numbers" in this context are 64-bit scalars, and may not only represent integers, but also pointers or other encoded data. See also native and struct.

(load "lib/native.l")

(gcc "ltest" NIL
   (cbTest (Fun) cbTest 'N Fun) )

long cbTest(int(*fun)(int,int,int,int,int)) {
   return fun(1,2,3,4,5);
}
/**/

: (cbTest
   (lisp 'cbTest
      '((A B C D E)
         (msg (list A B C D E))
         (* A B C D E) ) ) )
(1 2 3 4 5)
-> 120
(list 'any ['any ..]) -> lst
Returns a list of all any arguments. See also cons.

: (list 1 2 3 4)
-> (1 2 3 4)
: (list 'a (2 3) "OK")
-> (a (2 3) "OK")
lst/3
Pilog predicate that returns subsequent list elements, after applying the get algorithm to that object and the following arguments. Often used in database queries. See also map/3.

: (? (db nr +Ord 1 @Ord) (lst @Pos @Ord pos))
 @Ord={3-7} @Pos={4-1}
 @Ord={3-7} @Pos={4-2}
 @Ord={3-7} @Pos={4-3}
-> NIL
(lst? 'any) -> flg
Returns T when the argument any is a (possibly empty) list (NIL or a cons pair). See also pair.

: (lst? NIL)
-> T
: (lst? (1 . 2))
-> T
: (lst? (1 2 3))
-> T
(listen 'cnt1 ['cnt2]) -> cnt | NIL
Listens at a socket descriptor cnt1 (as received by port) for an incoming connection, and returns the new socket descriptor cnt. While waiting for a connection, a select system call is executed for all file descriptors and timers in the VAL of the global variable *Run. If cnt2 is non-NIL, that amount of milliseconds is waited maximally, and NIL is returned upon timeout. The global variable *Adr is set to the IP address of the client. See also accept, connect, *Adr.

: (setq *Socket
   (listen (port 6789) 60000) )  # Listen at port 6789 for max 60 seconds
-> 4
: *Adr
-> "127.0.0.1"
(lit 'any) -> any
Returns the literal (i.e. quoted) value of any, by consing it with the quote function if necessary.

: (lit T)
-> T
: (lit 1)
-> 1
: (lit '(1))
-> (1)
: (lit '(a))
-> '(a)
(load 'any ..) -> any
Loads all any arguments. Normally, the name of each argument is taken as a file to be executed in a read-eval loop. The argument semantics are identical to that of in, with the exception that if an argument is a symbol and its first character is a hyphen '-', then that argument is parsed as an executable list (without the surrounding parentheses). When any is T, all remaining command line arguments are loaded recursively. When any is NIL, standard input is read, a prompt is issued before each read operation, the results are printed to standard output (read-eval-print loop), and load terminates when an empty line is entered. In any case, load terminates upon end of file, or when NIL is read. The index for transient symbols is cleared before and after the load, so that all transient symbols in a file have a local scope. If the namespace was switched (with symbols) while executing a file, it is restored to the previous one. Returns the value of the last evaluated expression. See also script, ipid, call, file, in, out and str.

: (load "lib.l" "-* 1 2 3")
-> 6
(loc 'sym 'lst) -> sym
Locates in lst a transient symbol with the same name as sym. Allows to get hold of otherwise inaccessible symbols. See also ====.

: (loc "X" curry)
-> "X"
: (== @ "X")
-> NIL
(local . lst) -> sym
Wrapper function for zap. Typically used to create namespace-local symbols. lst should be a list of symbols. See also pico, symbols, import and intern.

: (symbols 'myLib 'pico)
-> pico
myLib: (local bar foo)
-> "foo"

myLib: (de foo (A)  # 'foo' is local to 'myLib'
   ...
myLib: (de bar (B)  # 'bar' is local to 'myLib'
   ...
(locale 'sym1 'sym2 ['sym ..])
Sets the current locale to that given by the country file sym1 and the language file sym2 (both located in the "loc/" directory), and optional application-specific directories sym. The locale influences the language, and numerical, date and other formats. See also *Uni, datStr, strDat, expDat, day, telStr, expTel and and money.

: (locale "DE" "de" "app/loc/")
-> "Zip"
: ,"Yes"
-> "Ja"
(lock ['sym]) -> cnt | NIL
Write-locks an external symbol sym (file record locking), or the whole database root file if sym is NIL. Returns NIL if successful, or the ID of the process currently holding the lock. When sym is non-NIL, the lock is released at the next top level call to commit or rollback, otherwise only when another database is opened with pool, or when the process terminates. See also *Solo.

: (lock '{1})        # Lock single object
-> NIL
: (lock)             # Lock whole database
-> NIL
(loop ['any | (NIL 'any . prg) | (T 'any . prg) ..]) -> any
Endless loop with multiple conditional exits: The body is executed an unlimited number of times. If a clause has NIL or T as its CAR, the clause's second element is evaluated as a condition and - if the result is NIL or non-NIL, respectively - the prg is executed and the result returned. See also do and for.

: (let N 3
   (loop
      (prinl N)
      (T (=0 (dec 'N)) 'done) ) )
3
2
1
-> done
(low? 'any) -> sym | NIL
Returns any when the argument is a string (symbol) that starts with a lowercase character. See also lowc and upp?

: (low? "a")
-> "a"
: (low? "A")
-> NIL
: (low? 123)
-> NIL
: (low? ".")
-> NIL
(lowc 'any) -> any
Lower case conversion: If any is not a symbol, it is returned as it is. Otherwise, a new transient symbol with all characters of any, converted to lower case, is returned. See also uppc, fold and low?.

: (lowc 123)
-> 123
: (lowc "ABC")
-> "abc"
(lt0 'any) -> num | NIL
Returns num when the argument is a number and less than zero, otherwise NIL. See also le0, ge0, gt0, =0 and n0.

: (lt0 -2)
-> -2
: (lt0 3)
-> NIL
(lup 'lst 'any) -> lst
(lup 'lst 'any 'any2) -> lst
Looks up any in the CAR-elements of cons pairs stored in the index tree lst, as built-up by idx. In the first form, the first found cons pair is returned, in the second form a list of all pairs whose CAR is in the range any .. any2. See also assoc.

: (idx 'A 'a T)
-> NIL
: (idx 'A (1 . b) T)
-> NIL
: (idx 'A 123 T)
-> NIL
: (idx 'A (1 . a) T)
-> NIL
: (idx 'A (1 . c) T)
-> NIL
: (idx 'A (2 . d) T)
-> NIL
: (idx 'A)
-> (123 a (1 . a) (1 . b) (1 . c) (2 . d))
: (lup A 1)
-> (1 . b)
: (lup A 2)
-> (2 . d)
: (lup A 1 1)
-> ((1 . a) (1 . b) (1 . c))
: (lup A 1 2)
-> ((1 . a) (1 . b) (1 . c) (2 . d))